In “Forensic and Medico-Legal Aspects of Sexual Crimes and Unusual Sexual Practices,” (CRC Press, December 2008), Dr. Anil Aggarwal of Maulana Azad University, New Delhi, demonstrates that the paraphilia of male cross-dressing is not, as activists like to claim, completely harmless.
Instead, it is characteristically accompanied by other sexual fetishes, such as, bondage, masochism, and auto-erotic asphyxiation.
C-D is often seen with homosexual inclination, increased sexual interest, and increased masturbation and is associated with increased use of pornography, as well as with forms of mental illness (mania, depression, suicidal ideation).
Aggarwal finds cross-dressing linked to childhood separation from parents.
Other researchers, even within Western governments, come to similar conclusions:
In “Dynamic Predictors of Sexual Recidivism,” (1998), R. Karl Hanson and Andrew Harris (Corrections Research, Dept. of the Solicitor General, Canada) write:
A recent meta-analytic review offollow-up studies identified numerous individual factors that were reliably related to sexual offense recidivism (Hanson & Bussière, 1996, 1998). Almost all of these identified factors were static (e.g., offense history, victim type, age) and the remainder were highly stable (e.g.,antisocial personality disorder, deviant sexual preferences).” (p. 6)
The authors also make the following observation:
The recidivists had committed a new sexual offense while on some form of community supervision (probation, parole, mandatory supervision).
The non-recidivists were matched to the recidivists on victim type, criminal history, geographical region and jurisdiction.The study examined approximately equal numbers of rapists, boy-victim child molesters and girl-victim child molesters.Despite efforts to match the recidivistic and non-recidivistic groups, some differences remained in static, historical variables.In comparison to the non-recidivists, the recidivists had a greater history of sexual deviance, such as diverse types of victims, stranger victims, juvenile offenses and paraphilias (e.g.,exhibitionism, cross-dressing).As well, the recidivists showed more signs of an antisocial lifestyle than did the non-recidivists. The recidivists were more likely tomeet criteria for antisocial personality, psychopathy (PCL-R), and had higherscores on objective risk scales (SIR and VRAG).” (p. 3).
In “Managing High Risk Sex Offenders in the Community: A Psychological Approach,” (2004) Jackie Craissati writes:
“As might be expected, the sexual homicide group exhibited much greater levels of paraphilia – non-contact behaviors such as exhibitionism, cross-dressing, and voyeurism – and this has been observed in other studies.”
and the following (p. 63):
Common features found in sexual sadists which differentiate them from non-sadistic sexual offender include a significant history of physical abuse, known cross-dressing, obscene telephone calls, and indecent exposure.”